Buddha birth place Lumbini or Kapilavastu?

Buddha birth place Lumbini or Kapilavastu? Overall archaeological sources, Buddhist texts have proved that the Gautam Buddha birth place is Lumbini.

Buddha birth place Lumbini

Buddha Birth Place, Lumbini (Nepal)

On the day of Vaisakha Poornima, 563 BC, Bodhisattva was born in the Lumbini. Maya Devi born him under the Sal tree. Shakyamuni has been referred to as Bodhisatva during the period from his birth to Buddhatva enlightenment. Two controversies related to the birth of Gautam Buddha are coming from ancient times among scholars and historians of Buddhist philosophy. One dispute relates to Buddha’s birth date, the second is related to his birthplace. The disputed question related to Buddha birth place is that, which is the Gautam Buddha birth place? Lumbini or Kapilavastu?

Both of these places mentioned in ancient Buddhist texts. In many texts, the differences in written statements are clearly visible. Many times these references confuse readers. Sometimes they think that Kapilavastu is the birthplace of Buddha, sometimes Lumbini appears as the Buddha birth place. It can be trace through the study of many texts and the inscriptions of Gautam Buddha that the Gautam Buddha birth place is Lumbini or Kapilavastu? The study of the geographical location of these two places is also important. Apart from this, the study of Buddha’s lineage also helps in reaching the truth.

Many Buddhist scholars have tried to gather the correct information about the place of birth of Gautam Buddha by studying and analyzing Buddhist texts. Most of the creations believe that the Gautam Buddha birth place is really Lumbini, although this place was part of Kapilvastu district in ancient times.

Lumbini is the Gautam Buddha birth place. Some proofs.

Most Buddhist scholars and historians consider Lumbini as the Gautama Buddha birth place. There are much evidence which described Lumbini as the Buddha birth place.

An evidence from the Sutnipaat of Pali Literature

As mentioned some sentences in the Sutnipaat of Pali Literature: –
सो बौधसत्तो रत्नवरो अतुल्यो।
मनुस्सलोके हित सुखाय जातो।
साक्यानं गामे जनपदे लुम्बिनेय्य।
(So Bodhsatto ratanvaro atulya. Manushloko hit shikhaay jato. Shakyaanm gaame janpade Lumbiney.)

Which means that the noble gem such as Bodhisattva took birth for the peace and welfare of mankind in Lumbini village of Sakyan Janpada. This quote from Sutanipaat is clear that Bodhisatva was born in the Lumbini only. Even today, this place in Nepal is famous as Lumbini Devi.

Ashoka’s stone pillar inscription

Buddha Birth Place

Stone pillar of Ashoka’s inscription on the Lord Buddha birth place in Lumbini is another evidence of this fact. This stone pillar founded by Emperor Ashoka. It was discovered in 1895 by the Department of Archeology, on which an inscription is written in Pali language. The meaning of this inscription is that, The Beloved of the Gods, the king Piyadassi, when he had been consecrated twenty years, came in person find referenced the place where Buddha Sakyamuni was born. He caused a stone enclosure to be made and a stone pillar to be erected. As the Lord was born here in the village of Lumbini, he has exempted it from tax and fixed its contribution [i.e. of grain] at one-eighth. {1} This article engraved on the pillar prove that this is the place where Lord Bodhisattva was born.

When was the Shakyamuni spent the night in the Ashram of Bharandu Kalam.

Once Shakyamuni arrived Kapilavastu during his journey. Mahanam Shakya met Gautam Buddha, Buddha asked him to arrange for one night stay there, but Mahanam Shakya could not provide the proper place for Buddha overnight. For this reason, Shakyamuni spent the night in the Ashram of Bharandu Kalam.

This incident proves that there was no close connection between Bodhisatva and Mahanaam Shakya. In one place in Manjhinikaya said that Mahanaam Shakya was the cousin of Bodhisatva, If he was a cousin, would he not make arrangements for the stay of Bodhisattva overnight? This incident, written in 124th Sutta of the Angutarnikaya scripture, it proves that Buddha had no close connection with Kapilavastu and Mahanama Shakya. It may be that Shuddhodhana sometimes came to Kapilvastu from Lumbini.

Kapilavastu as the Buddha birthplace?

Buddha birth place

In the texts of many Buddhist philosophies prevalent in India, the mention related to the birth of Buddha comes in such a way that Bodhisattva was born about 2500 years ago in ancient Kapalvastu, the ancient Kaushal State (present Uttar Pradesh). That time Mother Maya Devi was the ten months pregnant. She was sitting in the handbarrow and going to her maternal house Devdah. On the way, there was a forest Lumbini. In the same forest, she stayed there for some time in the shade of a (Shorea robusta) Sal tree, then there started the labor pains of her and while standing there holding the branch of Sal tree she gave the birth to Bodhisatva on the day of Vaishakh Poornima.

In these Indian texts describing the Kapilvastu as the birth place of Bodhisatva also mention the Lumbini forest where Bodhisattva is born. Chinese traveler Hein Tsang says in one of his articles that there was a gap of 14 to 15 miles between Lumbini and Kapilavastu. Maybe Kapilvastu was the part of India’s Kaushal state in ancient times. This is why Kapilavastu has been considered as the Buddha birth place in some ancient Indian Buddhist texts.

So, overall archaeological sources, Buddhist texts have proved that the Gautam Buddha birth place is Lumbini, which is situated on the India-Nepal border and is a prominent place of Buddhism. Currently, this place is being developed in a very systematic manner. Here many countries have established their own monasteries. This has become the center of Buddhist philosophy.

References:

Bhagwan Buddha:Jeevan aur Darshana by Dharmanand Kaushambi Page No. 99

Bhagwan Buddha aur Unka Dhama by Dr. Bhimrav Ambedaker

http://www.katinkahesselink.net/tibet/asoka1b.html#Rumminde

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